Christian Doppler versus Max Plank
As a sound source moves towards us it appears to shift up in frequency and the faster it moves away the lower the pitch of the sound drops. The reason for this is that sound is a longitudinal pressure wave with a period set by the frequency of the source and its relative speed to the observer. Air being a lossy medium the wave does not travel far before it attenuates below our hearing. It drops in amplitude because the pressure waves dissipate energy laterally. The sound while in earshot can be heard to rise and fall in frequency according to approaching or departing speed. The shift in frequency has been known as the Doppler shift for a long time now, so long that it has become accepted as a given. Sadly the theory is strictly limited to sound in an atmosphere and when it is applied to a similar phenomenon such as the red shift of light from distant stars it leads to fantastic but erroneous conclusions.
Light from all our galactic sources show a red shift which Doppler’s work implies that all such stellar sources are moving away from us. Also the more distant sources show even more red shift. The conclusion then is that all stellar objects are racing away from us. Go one step further and back in time all matter has to have been in one place where it could explode into an expanding Universe This is the root of the “BIG BANG” theory of the Universe”
As it's all based on Doppler shift, and we note that sound cannot propagate in space the whole theory is potentially wrong and we have to find another reason for the red shift that does not assume that light waves behave the same as sound waves as they clearly don’t.
Vesto Slypher was the scientist who first associated red shift with Doppler Shift and Edwin Hubble followed and adopted the work. Albert Einstein was not happy being an intuitive “steady state supporter” tried to add a fudge factor to his theories of relativity but without success. So convincing was the work that the world's scientific establishments followed and of course the big bang theory aligned well with various religious philosophies, the “Big Bang” was thus universally judged to be proven.
Sadly it’s all wrong! The proof of the failure of the Big Bang Theory is in later work where patches had to be added to deal with problems coming from trying to work on from the basic theory. Some of the patches are truly awesome such as the invention of dark matter to cover a severe shortfall in the observed amount of matter in the Universe against theoretical predictions. This has led on to ever more outrageous theories which should have brought their authors into disrepute and ridicule but the Big Bang theory was considered to be too valuable to abandon, indeed by many it has been considered to be a given. Justification for the Big Bang theory now is usually by looking back and suggesting that so many millions of people could not have been wrong. Sadly they were!
Looking at the way other forms of energy propagation that can traverse vast distances in space we end up considering basic individual photons. At the level of a photon we can move across into Quantum Physics and then use the work of Max Plank. (SEE BELL JARvia nav bar)
Looking at the Plank expression for the energy of a photon (see main body of this paper) the relationship between frequency and energy stands out. The speed of the photon is not a variable it is the speed of light in vacuum. To get to a red shift on a photon all we need is a loss of energy because as stated above, speed is fixed at “c”. Only the wavelength of the photon can change with the consequence of a shift in frequency downwards or towards red. There is one potential problem with this and that is we are taught at an early age that empty space is lossless to the passage of photons. Sadly this too has now been proved wrong by the very paradox that helped bring down the early steady state universe models. Olber’s Paradox begins with the postulation that the number of stars in an infinite universe is also infinite goes on to postulate that a line can be drawn from any point on the Earth’s surface and will end up on the surface of a sun. The reasoning then is that the night sky should be a continuous blaze of light but it’s not.
The miniscule forces that lead to a photon showing a red shift will also drain its energy over the vastness of space and the observation of a dark night sky speckled with just the closer, brighter stars is now considered not to be paradoxical.
So now we have a new constant “w” to relate red shift to distance not speed. This is the Woollvin constant and is simple to evaluate as all that is needed is a light source an otherwise known distance away. Using points on opposite sides of our planet’s orbit we can triangulate a distance, measuring angles of incidence 6 months apart. Obviously the distances have to be high enough for the resulting red shift to be measurable if not now then soon as telescope technology develops enough.